From Our Panel Of Experts

Diabetes In Children: Juvenile Diabetes

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Diabetes Mellitus (DM), commonly named as Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder. It prevents the body from utilizing glucose. It is characterized by high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) and changes in metabolism resulting in an array of physical disorders.    
      
Diabetes Classification according to World Health Organization (WHO) is:
  1. The Juvenile-Onset Type OR Type 1 DM OR Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM)
  2. The Maturity -Onset Type OR Type 2 DM OR Non- Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM)
Type 1 Diabetes:
Type 1 DM usually occurs in case of deficiency of insulin hormone and is seen in children and adolescents. Genetics and viruses are also involved. A type I diabetic child is usually underweight.

Type 1 DM can be further subdivided into:
  • Type 1a - This type of diabetes results from the destruction of beta cells of the pancreas. The destruction of cells is caused by a mechanism called autoimmunity
  • Type 1b - Reasons are not known for type 1b diabetes and that is why it is known as Idiopathic diabetes. The patient has low insulin
Prevalence:
  • In 2015, 9.4% of the population, had diabetes
  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is on a 3–5% increase every year
  • World Diabetes Atlas 2015 has shown that the United States of America (USA) ranks first followed by India with more than 70,000 children suffering from type-1 diabetes
  • India also records a high number of deaths due to diabetes